RadioFreeLiberal.com

Smart Voices, Be Heard
It is currently Sun Feb 18, 2018 6:01 pm

All times are UTC - 5 hours [ DST ]


Forum rules


Please click here to view the forum rules



Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 334 posts ]  Go to page Previous  1 ... 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14  Next
Author Message
PostPosted: Sun Oct 11, 2015 8:58 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
You might have noticed the phenomenal aurora photos making the Internet rounds. The latest auroras are described as bright enough to read by. They are photographed at normal shutter speeds, making foreground detail (including selfies) possible.

This is because of just about the longest period of G2-G3 storming I have ever seen. After several days, it died down, but now it is starting up again.

I haven't written much about this because it's too depressing. One of the few things still left to do in this unusual spell of L.A. heat is to twiddle the radio. The only problem I've ever had with being out of L.A. in October is that it's harder to hear short wave on the equipment I left in the NYC place, and usually this is the best month of the year to hear it. (You don't want to sit at a radio in New York in October. It's the best month of the year.)

So this year, I thought well, at least there'll be good radio conditions.

Nope.

We really are having my worst fear... extended coronal holes, and enhanced solar wind. Combined with low sunspot activity, this condition is looking ever more likely to take out the whole October radio season. Radio band conditions vary between merely disturbed and downright wretched.

We are in yet another storm watch for the next couple of days.

One more thing to be depressed about. It's best that I don't talk about it.

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Mon Oct 12, 2015 2:21 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
We're G1 again.

If you live in northern Norway, take pictures.

I'll just get depressed.

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Wed Oct 14, 2015 1:13 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
Biggest. Coronal. Hole. Ever.

Pic is at http://www.spaceweather.com/

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Wed Nov 04, 2015 2:37 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
Radio conditions recovered quite nicely for a few days, now we're back in and out of G1 and G2 territory. Nice little M1.9 flare yesterday. Off to the side in region 2445, with CME, not especially geoeffective, though it did make a radio sweep. I like radio sweeps. Sounds like an electric tsunami coming in, at the high end of HF.

Region 2443 has energy for M class flares, which aren't going to cause any trouble unless the timing is absolutely perfect, a zillion to one shot. Mostly the region is big, I mean really big, I mean huge. The Earth would fit in one of the spots, and there's something like 20 in the region.

Most of the auroral sound and fury is still persistent coronal holes. This planet moved into active solar wind and is still there.

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Wed Nov 04, 2015 7:52 pm 
Offline
Policy Wonk
User avatar

Joined: Sat Jul 04, 2015 5:46 pm
Posts: 1437
Couple of interesting stories the past 24 hours, connected to solar activity.

Quote:
Solar storm knocks out flight control systems in Sweden, grounds planes

Aviation officials say a solar storm knocked out the air traffic control systems in Sweden on Wednesday, prompting them to close the country's airspace for more than an hour.

The civil aviation authority said the solar storm created disturbances in the Earth's magnetic field, which affected radar installations in southern Sweden. No such problems were reported in neighbouring countries.

Agency spokesman Per Froberg said flights disappeared from radar screens in Swedish air traffic control towers during the blackout, which lasted about an hour until 5:30 p.m. local time (11:30 a.m. ET). Froberg said it was unclear why the impact was so severe, adding the last time something similar happened in Sweden was in 1999.

<snip>

Full article at:
http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/solar-storm-sweden-1.3304271

NZ South Island treated to spectacular light show

_________________
Socialism! That's that word that your politicians use that it's so nasty. Socialism. Other places just call it sharing. It's a good thing! You just share and give some to the less fortunate. -Fred Eaglesmith


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Fri Nov 06, 2015 6:54 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
Yes, that coincides with a dandy auroral event. Something polar happened. It never got spectacular enough in the Lower 48 to set off all the alarm bells, but the College AK "K" index took a real good boink around that time. Up around strong storm level. Locally G3 or thereabouts, though that scale (NOAA) is more about the whole planet.

Here's another record of this sort of thing:

http://www.gfz-potsdam.de/en/sektion/er ... /kp-index/

Note the D component going bonkers around the right time.

Odd that Norway didn't get anything. Some of it is farther north, and that part is prone to ground currents. A lot of electronics don't particularly like those.

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Sun Nov 08, 2015 5:54 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
D component going crazy in Norway. For a weenie solar cycle, the last two months have looked like a proper peak.

Note however that "sunspots" are actually abnormally low for this point in the cycle. It's all coronal holes and CMEs from various places, not flares. They're actually down. X-ray is flatlined most of the time.

The US military is simulating a Carrington Event. Today was the day the scenario calls for a sudden huge magnetic storm knocking everything out, so a few emergency and ham radio stations are doing all the world's communication. That's the scenario anyway. Well, too bad they're not farther north. They'd get to practice up during a weaker version of the real thing.

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Mon Nov 09, 2015 2:07 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
The military folks got some lousy band conditions to practice their Carrington Event. One of them said yes how perfect. Of course, in a real such event, long distance HF propagation would largely cease to exist. You'd have the shorter paths, such as the ones used in this exercise, but they'd have weird Doppler distortions and various flutters and gurgles taking out parts of words and making everything hard to hear. They should have run the mike audio through a guitar flanger for authenticity.

Oh, and we actually really did get a piddly little M3 flare. Nice boink in the X-ray. CME, maybe. Won't matter. A ripple in a 20 foot surf.

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Tue Dec 29, 2015 8:36 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
M1.9 long duration flares aren't that big a deal. The one we just had has the net buzzing because it was as geoeffective as you can get, and the CME is full halo indicating that it blew right at the camera that picks up such things in space, and the earth is therefore in the cross hairs. This won't be the "glancing blow" they're always talking about on the web sites. It's the bullseye.

Thing is though, that M1.9 long duration flares aren't that big a deal, and a CME from one all by its lonesome without reinforcement from other stuff isn't the end of civilization either. Maybe get to G2 if we're lucky.

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Tue Dec 29, 2015 11:24 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 07, 2015 3:09 am
Posts: 5068
I saw some mention the other day about super CME's.

These are CME's that are so big and powerful, that they could readily be the cause of a mass extinction event.

I hadn't heard about this possibility before and I find it intriguing.


Well, even if that hasn't or won't happen in our little corner of the universe, we only have about another billion years before our sun begins expanding to the point that our oceans vaporize and in turn the entire planet will be swallowed up, much in the same way sandworms in the Dune universe do it.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Tue Dec 29, 2015 11:45 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Tue Nov 12, 2013 3:07 am
Posts: 8990
ShineOn, when I was a freshman in college taking a geology class, I needed a visualization of our Earths crust state. I remembered casting bullets and fishing sinkers from molten lead in a pan on the stove. A crust would form over the shiny all dull and gray and I would sweep it to the side so I could dip the ladle in through the shiny spot. Then I would sweep it to the side for the next dip, and the next, ... . Pretty soon I had the Earths crust with mountains shoved up to one side floating high on the molten lake of shiny lead.

Then I stopped bothering it, and it soon filled in skinning like a sea bottom over the shiny exposed molten core.

These super CME's you've mentioned kind of remind me of younger me skimming molten lead with my crusty sweeping stick.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Wed Dec 30, 2015 10:38 am 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 07, 2015 3:09 am
Posts: 5068
ShineOn, when I was a freshman in college taking a geology class, I needed a visualization of our Earths crust state. I remembered casting bullets and fishing sinkers from molten lead in a pan on the stove. A crust would form over the shiny all dull and gray and I would sweep it to the side so I could dip the ladle in through the shiny spot. Then I would sweep it to the side for the next dip, and the next, ... . Pretty soon I had the Earths crust with mountains shoved up to one side floating high on the molten lake of shiny lead.

Then I stopped bothering it, and it soon filled in skinning like a sea bottom over the shiny exposed molten core.

These super CME's you've mentioned kind of remind me of younger me skimming molten lead with my crusty sweeping stick.

That's even more powerful than I imagined them.

I was figuring more like packing a big enough wallop to start fires and scorch the landscape, and just generally disrupt ecosystems too extensively in the short term.

Of course, there could also be cosmic events that go to the level of abject Star Wars-like planet destruction.

For instance, gamma-ray bursts.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Wed Dec 30, 2015 2:17 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
Gamma ray bursts are the big tamale, yes. They'd leave the planet in a sterile state as if it had been autoclaved.

CMEs, dunno. I also remember reading a story about a huge solar blowout that caused some amount of extinction on Earth, but I'm not sure what it was. If it wasn't direct EM radiation I suppose it would have to be coronal mass, since that's the other way energy gets transferred.

I've seen the same extinction event attributed to a meteor storm. Right now, meteor storms are very popular for explaining things. They're being theorized as causes for a lot of historical events. This, of course, is pure conjecture.

The biggest known CME is still the Carrington Event. That's because it happened fairly recently and was well observed. It wasn't a single CME but several which added just right in-phase to cause equatorial aurora. The major problem was heavy ground currents and/or long-line Faraday effect, that supposedly shocked wire telegraphers. You can imagine what this would do to our current comm infrastructure, not to mention pretty well hosing the power grid and all the pipelines. We'd be back to HF radios on batteries, probably using Morse code to get through the disturbed ionosphere. Russia would suddenly have the best comm system in the world.

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Wed Dec 30, 2015 3:04 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 07, 2015 3:09 am
Posts: 5068
Yeah, does seem that the comet theories about how mass-extinction events occurred are more popular.

It's a pretty good theory, and seeing as how it originated at Cal several decades ago and continues to be explored there, it sort of makes sense that this would become a popular explanation for such events.

(Of course, when it comes to astrophysics at Cal, I'm rather partial to Professor Filippenko. I suppose that's somewhat natural, seeing as how his father was so generous in helping me to learn some advanced mathematics a long, long time ago. His dad was a truly wonderful teacher; I suppose the melodic old-world accent didn't hurt.)


I found one reference, anyway, to this notion of super CMEs, but I'm not sure how legit it is. Looks like the poor bloke is being somewhat sidelined by the popularity of the comet theories.

http://starburstfound.org/mammoth-extin ... ar-flares/

This is also going to be a popular area for folks that are somewhat obsessed with end-times scenarios. And, even though they show absolutely no religious orientation or crazy right-wing libertarian nonsense, the look of that website still sort of hits me that way at the outset - survival.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Thu Dec 31, 2015 9:50 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
Supernova comet? Didn't know comets could nova. </sarcasm>

Along with comet debris there are vague references to molecules associated with heavy meteors showing up in excavations or whatever. Since the cometary dinosaur theory was so well received, now bombardments from space are kind of an in thing. Anyway, one guy thinks the Mayans really declined after yet another asteroid hit around the Yucatan peninsula but disintegrated in the atmosphere and dropped meteors all over the place, doing nuclear war level damage.

Then there's the idea that the time around when Rome finally went away was kind of a mass extinction event for civilizations and organized states. The idea is that the Dark Ages were partially caused by some kind of global meteor storm. It would certainly explain why Christianity is so gloomy if its transition to the dominant religion came at a time when the sky really was smiting whole villages at random. In the absence of a cosmology based on gravitation and orbital mechanics driven by an expanding universe, the idea that good and evil were battling it out on a supernatural scale was as good as anything anyone else could think of.

The chance of big solar flares really is down considerably from the more active solar cycles which peaked in 1958 and have been declining in magnitude ever since. It's all about probability, but we're not rolling the dice as often.

CMEs, though, can come from other phenomena on the sun. The media get all flappy about solar flares, but actually minus some kind of huge event like the non-geoeffective X28 that happened a while back, they just aren't causing as much sturm and drang as filaments, prominence eruptions, and coronal holes. Now could an X28 cause a Carrington Event? We don't know. It's only in the last 15 or so years we can even measure that high. Before the detectors would saturate out at more like X15.

BTW there's a G3 level event predicted for right about now. We're at G2 at the moment.

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Thu Dec 31, 2015 10:04 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 07, 2015 3:09 am
Posts: 5068
BTW there's a G3 level event predicted for right about now. We're at G2 at the moment.

I'm seeing G2 at the moment, and predicted for later on.

Looks like tail-end of CME from a few days ago.

Still, no chance to see any pretty lights tonight with all this fog around here.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Fri Jan 01, 2016 4:51 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
Yup, never got to G3.

Aurora's been nice and bright this cycle, but not in lower latitudes. I think maybe WA and OR a couple of times, but not for long. It's really been a long time since aurora was able to compete with L.A. lights and show up on things like the Mt. Wilson webcam.

There are theories on why the aurora subjectively seems to be brighter this go-round. I tend to suspect digital photography, which has no reciprocity failure and therefore is great for making nice deep-colored aurora photos. People do report that it's the brightest aurora they've ever seen, but that's nothing new. They've always said that. There's also a theory about the magnetic field that I don't know much about.

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Fri Jan 01, 2016 9:27 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 07, 2015 3:09 am
Posts: 5068
CMEs, though, can come from other phenomena on the sun. The media get all flappy about solar flares, but actually minus some kind of huge event like the non-geoeffective X28 that happened a while back...

Let me start by pointing out that I'm not an expert in this area of astronomy; probably a lot more knowledge than most people, but that's not the same as working at it full-time. My area of expertise is more closely related to astrochemistry.

Anyway, the first scholarly article I pulled up suggests that X28 solar flares can be geoeffective:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1 ... 017536/pdf

I suppose it's just dumb luck at this point when they end up being non-geoeffective.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Fri Jan 01, 2016 10:16 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
Complete luck. Geoeffective just means that it effects the Earth. CME is highly dependent on the rotation of the sun, and only a small part of this is 100% geoeffective. It's pure chance, but the odds are in our favor.

Actually, were an X28 flare to go of in sight of the Earth, the effects of the EM radiation eight minutes later would have some pretty dire consequences regardless of where the coronal mass ultimately went. Zapped satellites, loss of ionospheric radio propagation, a possible bad day for astronauts, and some other stuff I can't even imagine right now. The biggest one I remember is an X15/extra bright, and that killed a GOES satellite and blew out the ionosphere for a long time just from the EM. There might have been an X18, but the detector saturated out and they had to estimate it.

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Fri Jan 01, 2016 11:11 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 07, 2015 3:09 am
Posts: 5068
Actually, were an X28 flare to go of in sight of the Earth, the effects of the EM radiation eight minutes later would have some pretty dire consequences regardless of where the coronal mass ultimately went. Zapped satellites, loss of ionospheric radio propagation, a possible bad day for astronauts, and some other stuff I can't even imagine right now. The biggest one I remember is an X15/extra bright, and that killed a GOES satellite and blew out the ionosphere for a long time just from the EM. There might have been an X18, but the detector saturated out and they had to estimate it.

Perhaps worth keeping in mind, the bigger the burst, the less of it that has to actually hit Earth in order for it to be geoeffective.

And there's obviously a chance one of those can hit us.

A, B, C, M, X is the current solar flare ranking, each one increasing by a an order of magnitude from the previous one (aka powers of ten). And within each class (letter), the change in intensity of the flare is linear - an X2 contains twice as much free-energy as an X1.

It's fortuitous, I suppose, that they left some space in the ranking process - we still have letters Y and Z available.

It appears that one of the 21st century X-flares that totally saturated the space-borne detectors (around X18) has been upgraded to an X45. I think that actually makes it somewhat close to being a Y2, but please don't quote me on that; I'm simply being too lazy to figure it out more accurately, but it appears that there may be some sort of mixed linear-logarithmic nature to this scale.

Here's the physicist in me speaking, now. It is completely reasonable to expect that on cosmic time-scales of many thousands to many millions, and even billions of years, given the usual statistical (i.e. distributional) nature of such phenomena, our own sun may very well produce solar prominences that lead to Z-class solar flares (and beyond), and such events could in fact pack enough of a wallop so as to be the cause of mass-extinction events on this planet.

The only way to mitigate that concern, I believe, is to show in an exceedingly convincing manner (which I'm sort of doubtful can be done) that our sun can never reach such powerful levels of CMEs.

Otherwise, we should probably be considering how to build shields and such to protect us from these potentially sudden and unusually strong outbursts from the primary giver of life, our sun.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Sat Jan 02, 2016 4:31 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
I don't completely understand the scale either. Flare classifications are, I believe, indeed in magnitudes, and for whatever reason it does jump letters. Maybe they wanted X to mean X-ray, or maybe they just grandfathered in an old scale on top of a new one. You'd know more than I do here. I took a few classes, and later I read extensively on the subject at the UCLA library when I'd gotten into ham radio, but I'm still kind of vague in places.

What I do remember is that a flare is at first an EM event, mostly X-ray and extreme UV, and this causes one type of phenomenon which arrives essentially at light speed. Then it may or may not blow coronal mass off into space. I would suspect this mass is mostly hydrogen nuclei, in other words protons. Whatever it is, it's a moving charge, and it can bend magnetic lines and stuff. Charged particles spiral around these lines, and there's a lot of interaction.

These phenomena travel much slower, with an arrival time of 36-48 hours.

Yes, planning for massive solar flares, and other outbursts from our otherwise friendly neighborhood star, is a very good idea, and like many good ideas it gets somewhat lost when the emphasis and money go to prepare for war.

ShineOn, I like you. You're cool.

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Sat Jan 02, 2016 10:41 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 07, 2015 3:09 am
Posts: 5068
You'd know more than I do here.

Seriously, I'm doubtful.

Though, if you are not careful, that may change.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2016 1:23 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
I liked your explanation of spectroscopy in the thread about gravitation waves. It seems like the whole emission-line thing with solar H-alpha etc would be right down your alley.

Getting back on topic, we've been G1 with periods of G2 in some places for about a day now. As usual, it has nothing to do with flares. Remember back a few months when I said uh-oh, coronal holes? Well, that's what happened. These let hydrogen plasma out into space. This is obviously free protons and electrons, which increase solar wind and transfer energy into the interplanetary and terrestrial magnetic fields. If the dreaded Bz (interplanetary magnetic field component) goes south, stand by for aurora.

Aurora, as we come out of the midwinter period, has been getting awesome. Again. Incredible for photographers and chilly people doing bucket list items. Not so great for short wave geeks in the SW US trying to hear 900 watt fishery stations in Japan.

Flares in the past few months just haven't been all that spectacular.

Now... aurora. Why's it so much better looking this cycle? I was guessing because people are using digital cameras to photograph it now, and there's no reciprocity failure. My degree's in movies, which means I'm not so hot at integrals and differentials, but I can quote d log e curves and reciprocity laws for film cameras from now until doomsday. (Which might not be long, at the rate they're stopping manufacture of film.) Film grunges out in very long exposures in low light... digital doesn't.

There's another theory that this cycle, being lower, allows aurora to get brighter. Something about less interference from other variables. I don't know a whole lot about this. Maybe we're in a happy medium for solar activity as regards aurora. Hmmmmmmmm.

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2016 6:00 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 07, 2015 3:09 am
Posts: 5068
It does appear that digital image technology is maturing to the point that what can be done with it is surpassing the analogue versions of such technology.

I suspect that part of the reason for an apparently increased vibrancy of colors in digital photography is due to the innate ability of CCD technology to be able to better reject long wavelength photons (red, infra-red, and on into microwave):

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Band_gap


Have you attended any Star Parties recently and seen all the new cool toys available to (supposedly amateur) astronomers?

I'm still somewhat blown away when thinking about how Kodak helped to develop the digital camera and then more-or-less abandoned it.


I spent quite a lot of time in darkrooms as a child and teenager (and on into my early adult years while exploring powder diffraction photographs in the field of x-ray crystallography), which might help to explain why I pursued chemical physics.


Did I really say anything worthwhile on spectroscopy in that other thread? Seemed like I hardly said anything at all.


Newton was probably the first person to observe the solar lines (hydrogen and any number of other elements), but didn't explore them further. That had to wait for Fraunhofer:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_von_Fraunhofer

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraunhofer_Society

Such details about the history of spectroscopy are briefly mentioned in the first chapter of my PhD dissertation. So, yeah, my natural inclinations tend towards learning about and working with such things.


Top
 Profile  
 
PostPosted: Thu Feb 18, 2016 3:57 pm 
Offline
Board Emeritus
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jun 09, 2011 1:10 pm
Posts: 15733
Location: The blue parts of the map
Yes, they recently stopped putting IR filters on pro-grade digital cameras.

I've seen ads for some of what's available for less than megabucks to "amateur" astronomers. Dizzying, yes.

It's filtering all the way down. I ran across a really textbook solar RF sweep once while looking for something else. This used to be exotic stuff done on huge radio telescopes by grad students. Now:

Image

_________________
True patriots are appalled.


Top
 Profile  
 
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 334 posts ]  Go to page Previous  1 ... 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14  Next

All times are UTC - 5 hours [ DST ]


Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot post attachments in this forum

Search for:
Jump to:  
Powered by phpBB® Forum Software © phpBB Group